By Krishna Jha
Social Darwinism, espoused by Sociologist Herbert Spencer from Darwin’s theory of ‘natural selection’, was meant to rationalize the ugliest form of capitalism in late nineteenth century. Spencer assimilated the theory of natural selection based on ‘the survival of the fittest’, which, he said was preservation of the favoured races in their struggle for life. Spencer was writing in the context of economic evolution when he mentioned survival of the fittest. For Darwin, it was concern for the entire humanity. Darwin was expanded by Engels. He said evolution of human being came on two wheels. One was labour and other language, both evolving based on each other and dividing the society into two parts, standing together and also locked in a constant struggle against each other.
History began as evolved the source of livelihood. Any shift in it, decided the character of the society. Labour, and its means decided the course and through shifts, entered capitalism along with its aberrations, and also novelties, on the shoulders of industrial revolution. The maturity, that was to come in decades, signalling the end of the era, lingered with its cycles of economic crises and booms. Those who favoured the status quo, named rightists, or conservatives, wanted to reap all the advantages, that too for always, and at the cost of the vast masses.
In India, as in many countries in the world, those who have come to power, represent even further advance, a new stage in the old garb. It is imperialism, with its many wraps. These wraps are meant to divide the society and rule with ease, sometime leaning on obsolete, like caste and community, and at other, destroying the pillars of democracy. As Capitalism evolves, Democracy offers the supportive system, but for survival, the ‘fittest’ asks for more and demands a total shift. The corporate owns capital and production both, which is in fact monopolization of capital. Simultaneously there is concentration of banking as well.
Small and medium banks are being merged in the bigger banks, that are already burdened with bad NPAs. RBI has been left toothless, with demands for more surplus. The budget itself has refrained from even mentioning the allocations in prime areas like water security, agriculture, housing for all by 2022. Then comes the capital account items, that is the main investment for the public sector, like on interest payments, subsidies, defence, pension, establishment, and transfers to the states. Together it forms only12.2 percent of the total budget. Many more vital zones are starved of resources. Economy is slow and faces decline in demand. The loss of employment and rise in Unemployment are closely related. The amendments in the labour law are ominous and forecast further miseries. The three shocks dealt on the unorganized sector that constitutes 94 percent of the entire economy, leaves it dazed and also shattered. These shocks, coming from demonetization, GST and also the shattering of non-banking financial companies that used to extend loans to this sector, have not been acknowledged by the ruling BJP-RSS government. That leaves no hope for restoration.
Yet, restoration is imperative, of economy, of the entire psyche of the masses. The coming days are to be marked by the rule of finance capital, threshold of fascism, and the reactionary forces slog to build up the popular base for the chauvinist forces led by an autocracy that rules wielding terror.
This is not capitalist democracy, nor social fascism. It is monopoly capitalist autocracy leading to fascism, and its one of the prime features is constant build up of popular support base. Our country has been witness to its classical spread up. It is not an attack on the working class alone, it takes into its folds the entire masses. We have seen the RSS-BJP taking up casteist, communal stance, against Dalits and women, against minorities, propagating illiteracy through new draft education policy, and then amending the National Investigation Agency to promote terror, turning it into a vehicle to institutionalize terror.
Grounding for the fittest few is in the process, but not for long. Evolution continues. Those who were the fittest have to give way to democracy, to demos, to the vast majority.